Initially the Tehri Garhwal was an independent state ruled by Parmar rulers. Later on, when British occupation of Garhwal started (1815 onwards) the Tehri Garhwal state was administered for more than 13 decades (about 133 years) in a “Native style” i.e. it remained under a distinctly separate administrative system, which was modeled, more or less, on the pattern of British India. After India achieved its independence from the British in August 1947, Tehri for the next two years continued as a Native state, till by a Govt. of India proclamation of 1st August 1949, it too was integrated and became the part of the then Uttar Pradesh. This erstwhile Native state was later divided into Uttarkashi and Tehri Garhwal district of Garhwal Division. After the bifurcation of Uttar Pradesh, this district is now in the state of Uttaranchal, spread over 3796 Sq. Km.
Geographically, the Tehri Garhwal district can be divided into two main parts- (i) Valley and (ii) Hill Areas. Basically it is a hilly district as most of its area is mountainous. Soils of vallies are of Dumont and Red types while Red Dhumat is found in the hilly region.
As far as climate is concerned, hot climate is the characteristic of vallies in summer and extreme colds in the winter. Higher peaks are snow clad throughout the year. The minimum and maximum (mean) temperatures vary between 0.20 C to 320 C respectively. Average rainfall in the district is 1706.8 mm.
Many rivers originate/ flow through this district; a few important of them are-Alaknanda, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana and many of these rivers are having religious importance for Hindus. The district has many important mountains/ glaciers-Khatling glaciers, Pidi Mountain, Nagtiba, Pawali-Kantha etc.
The forest area of the district is 67%. This forest cover of the district comprises of Deodar, Pine, Ralkher, Kharas, Moru, Mukkut etc. These provide valuable timber and non-timber forest products.
Lime, dolmit, Zinc, Fhosphate etc. is also found in the district, which is under utilized mostly due to lack of good infrastructure.
The much awaited Tehri Dam is on the verge of completion and is a major hope for the people of state in general and people of Tehri Garhwal district in particular. The dam has the height of 260.5 m. and is expected to generate 2400 MW. Of electricity. Apart from power generation, irrigation, navigation, flood control, it will definitely enhance the employment opportunities in the sectors like tourism, fishing etc.
The physiographic and socio-economic conditions of this district are characterized by their diversity and complexity. The population of the region has increased rapidly with the consequence of mounting pressure on limited forest cover. This has led to increased use of marginal, easily eroded lands and overgrazing of fragile upland pasture areas. Further due to small land holdings, limited irrigation facilities and extreme (adverse) climatic conditions, the peasants of the region do not get desired income giving rise to a kind of “subsistence economy”.
In addition, the traditional sheep and goat rearing and wool-based activities have been diminished due to increasing literacy and ban posed through Govt. policies an grazing on the other. Consequently the traditional looms and weavers have become idle. Besides it there are no developed village and cottage industries.
Due to all these reasons the educated and uneducated unemployed youths are forced to migrate to the plains in search of job leaving behind their women folks in the villages to struggle for their life. Consequently, these circumstances have diverted the once “self reliant economy” to the “money order economy”.
RSVY Progress Report upto 2007-08 (Financial & Physical)